Handbook of Cellulosic Ethanol

Gaseous Biofuels

Biomass can be converted into gaseous and liquid fuels through thermochemical and biochemical routes. Some of the common gas­eous biofuels are:

1. Biogas. This is the gas mixture produced by anaero­bic digestion of biodegradable materials such as cow manure, sewage, municipal wastes, and plant materi­als. The major component in biogas is methane (CH4), which is about 60%, the remainder is carbon dioxide.

In addition to this, small amounts of hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen are also found in this gaseous biofuel.

2. Biosynthetic gas or biomass-derived syngas. Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass under con­trolled conditions is used to produce syngas. This gaseous biofuel is a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The syngas produced from biomass can be used directly as a fuel in gas tur­bines for electricity generation or as a transport fuel in internal combustion engines. Biomass-derived syngas can also be converted to ethanol by chemical and bio­chemical methods as well. Production of syngas and upgrading of syngas to bioethanol is described in Part 3 of this book.

3. Biohydrogen. This is the hydrogen produced from biomass resources. Several routes are currently under study for production of hydrogen, which include dark/photo fermentations [11, 12] and steam reform­ing of bio-oil [13].

Handbook of Cellulosic Ethanol

Disadvantages of Ethanol

There are a few disadvantages to ethanol when compared to gaso­line, including: 1. Lower energy density in ethanol is the most signifi­cant disadvantage. A kilogram of ethanol has about 66% …

Handbook of Cellulosic Ethanol

The inevitable decline in petroleum reserves and the rise in demand for oil from rapidly growing economies have caused soaring oil prices, and coupled with climate change concerns have contributed …

Biodiesel Education Grants

Competitive grants are available through the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program (Section 9006) to educate governmental and private enti­ties that operate vehicle fleets, the public, and other interested enti­ties about the …

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