Disadvantages of Ethanol

There are a few disadvantages to ethanol when compared to gaso­line, including: 1. Lower energy density in ethanol is the most signifi­cant disadvantage. A kilogram of ethanol has about 66% …

Handbook of Cellulosic Ethanol

The inevitable decline in petroleum reserves and the rise in demand for oil from rapidly growing economies have caused soaring oil prices, and coupled with climate change concerns have contributed …

Biodiesel Education Grants

Competitive grants are available through the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program (Section 9006) to educate governmental and private enti­ties that operate vehicle fleets, the public, and other interested enti­ties about the …

Corn and Sugarcane Ethanol

Corn and sugarcane are the major feedstocks for bioethanol currently used in the world. Ethanol produced from sugar or starch feedstock like sugarcane and corn is known as first generation …

Introduction to Cellulosic Ethanol

Renewable Fuels 1.1 Introduction Since the beginning of civilization on earth, humans have used biomass for many of their energy needs such as cooking, heating dwellings, lighting, firing clay pots, …

Biomass Research and Development Initiative

The U. S. Department of Agriculture's National Institute of Food and Agriculture, in conjunction with U. S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs, provides grant funding for projects addressing …

First Generation Ethanol Production

The United States is the largest ethanol producer in the world, pro­ducing 13.9 billion gallons, and Brazil is the second largest producer with 5.57 billion gallons in 2011. These two …

Renewable Energy

A renewable energy source can be defined as an energy source that is continually replenished, is available over the long term at a reasonable cost that can be used with …

Biobased Transportation Research Funding

The Surface Transportation Research, Development, and Deployment (STRDD) Program funds activities that promote inno­vation in transportation infrastructure, services, and operations. A portion of the funding made available to the STRDD …

Biofuels

Biomass-derived fuels or biofuels are an important contributor in the modern renewables slice of the energy source distribution pie chart shown in Figure 1.2. The use of biogas in heating …

Advanced Biofuel Feedstock Incentives

The Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP; Section 9010) pro­vides financial assistance to landowners and operators that establish, produce, and deliver biomass feedstock crops for advanced biofuel production facilities. Qualified feedstock …

Advantages of Biofuels

Common biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, vegetable oils, biodiesel, biogas, biosynthetic gas or biomass-derived syngas, bio-oil, bio-char, and bio-hydrogen. The benefits or advantages of biofuels can be broadly classified into three …

Renewable Fuel Legislature in the United States

The renewable fuel agenda in the United States is implemented by federal laws and regulations. These acts give guidelines as well as directions and, most importantly, provide the legal support …

Gaseous Biofuels

Biomass can be converted into gaseous and liquid fuels through thermochemical and biochemical routes. Some of the common gas­eous biofuels are: 1. Biogas. This is the gas mixture produced by …

Renewable Fuel Standards of Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007

The United States renewable fuel standards of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 is used as a guideline for the future of renewable energy [25]. The stated purpose …

Liquid Biofuels

Liquid biofuels fall into three general categories: 1. Bioalcohols 2. Vegetable oil - and algae-based biodiesel 3. Biomass-based hydrocarbon fuels or drop-in biofuels The most commonly used liquid biofuels are …

US EPA 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards

According to the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, the projected tar­get for cellulosic ethanol for the year 2013 is 1.00 BG …

Renewable Energy in the United States

As in many other countries, renewable energy resources-based electricity dominated the renewable energy landscape in the United States, and accounted for 13.2% of the domestically produced elec­tricity in 2012 [22]. …

Bioethanol as a Transportation Fuel

2.1 Introduction — History of Bioethanol as a Transportation Fuel Ethanol and ethanol blends have a long history as alternative trans­portation fuels. As far back as 1826, Samuel Morey used …

Federal Agencies Promoting Renewable Energy

In the United States several federal agencies are involved in promot­ing the gradual transition from fossil resources to renewable energy resources. The two main agencies include the U. S. Department …

Alcohol Fuels

Alcohol fuels are oxygenated fuels containing one or more oxygen atoms per molecule. Monohydric acyclic saturated alcohols make a homologous series with general formula CnH2n+1OH. The lower members like methanol, …

Incentives for Renewable Fuels

There are a number of incentives for production and utilization of renewable fuels, such as bioethanol and biodiesel, under the U. S. Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy …

Fuel Characteristics of Ethanol

As discussed in the earlier section, ethanol was first introduced on a larger scale in the 1970s as a blend in fuel to serve as a replacement for methyl tertiary …

Advanced Biofuel Production Grants and Loan Guarantees

The Biorefinery Assistance Program (Section 9003) provides loan guarantees for the development, construction, and retrofitting of commercial-scale biorefineries that produce advanced biofuels. Grants for demonstration-scale biorefineries are also available. Advanced …

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