development of new energy

BENEFITS AND RECOVERY OF ECOSYSTEMS

Policies to reduce emissions and deposition are ulti­mately aimed at decreasing negative effects and/or increasing recovery of affected ecosystems. The response of effects to decreases in emissions depends on the type of effect. Figure 6 shows relative response times to changes in emissions. The effect is fastest for air concentrations and the resulting improvement in visibility, the direct plant response, and acute human health. However, it takes longer for chronic health, aquatic systems, or plant responses to show the results of reduced emissions. It will take several years

to centuries before the forest ecosystem or soil nutrient status respond to the reductions. This difference in response times has to be taken into account when evaluating the changes in effect parameters, especially because the decrease in emis­sions started in the 1980s and 1990s.

development of new energy

Discussion

Aggregation using price has its shortcomings. Prices provide a reasonable method of aggregation if the aggregate cost function is homothetically separable in the raw material input prices. This means that …

PREFACE

The history of human culture can be viewed as the progressive development of new energy sources and their associated conversion technologies. Advances in our understanding of energy have produced unparalleled …

ECONOMIC GROWTH, DEMAND, AND ENERGY USE

On a per capita basis, rising demand for mobility is well correlated with growth in gross domestic product (GDP)—a measure of national economic activity—across a wide variety of economic, social, …

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