Discussion

Aggregation using price has its shortcomings. Prices provide a reasonable method of aggregation if the aggregate cost function is homothetically separable in the raw material input prices. This means that …

PREFACE

The history of human culture can be viewed as the progressive development of new energy sources and their associated conversion technologies. Advances in our understanding of energy have produced unparalleled …

ECONOMIC GROWTH, DEMAND, AND ENERGY USE

On a per capita basis, rising demand for mobility is well correlated with growth in gross domestic product (GDP)—a measure of national economic activity—across a wide variety of economic, social, …

ACID DEPOSITION

Within the causal chain, the activities and resulting emissions form the basis of the effects and thus the abatement should be focused on the emissions. However, the effects are linked …

ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO ENERGY AGGREGATION

Although we argue that the more advanced economic indexing methods, such as Divisia aggregation, are the most appropriate way to aggregate energy use for investigating its role in the economy, …

FOREWORD

Energy generation and use are strongly linked to all elements of sustainable development: economic, social, and environmental. The history of human development rests on the availability and use of energy, …

ENERGY USE, EMISSIONS, AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

The growth in air transportation volume has important global environmental impacts associated with the potential for climate change. On local to regional scales, noise, decreased air quality related primarily to …

BENEFITS AND RECOVERY OF ECOSYSTEMS

Policies to reduce emissions and deposition are ulti­mately aimed at decreasing negative effects and/or increasing recovery of affected ecosystems. The response of effects to decreases in emissions depends on the …

The ecologist Howard Odum analyzes energy

The ecologist Howard Odum analyzes energy and materials with a system that traces their flows within and between society and the environment. It is important to differentiate between two aspects …

Acid Deposition and Energy Use

JAN WILLEM ERISMAN Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands Petten, The Netherlands 1. Introduction 2. Acid Deposition, Its Effects, and Critical Loads 3. Processes in the Causal Chain: Emission, Transport, …

TRENDS IN ENERGY USE

Fuel efficiency gains due to technological and operational change can mitigate the influence of growth on total emissions. Increased demand has historically outpaced these gains, resulting in an overall increase …

Surface Water

Lake ecosystems have improved in northern Europe and North America, where emission reductions occurred. In general, SO4 concentrations have decreased following the emission trends, but nitrogen concentrations have not shown …

CASE STUDY 1: NET ENERGY FROM FOSSIL FUEL EXTRACTION IN THE UNITED STATES

One technique for evaluating the productivity of energy systems is net energy analysis, which com­pares the quantity of energy delivered to society by an energy system to the energy used …

INTRODUCTION

The alarm regarding the increasing acidification of precipitation in Europe and eastern North America was first sounded in the 1960s. Since then, most attention has focused on acid rain’s effects, …

ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN AN AIRCRAFT SYSTEM

Energy intensity can be related to specific measures of technological and operational efficiency in the air transportation system. The rest of this article takes a more detailed look at trends …

Forests

Forested catchments in Europe are studied within the ICP Integrated Monitoring (IM). These sites are located in undisturbed areas, such as natural parks or comparable areas. The network currently covers

Methods and Data

Following the definitions in Eq. (2), a quality- corrected EROI* is defined by Е П o i=1 AUEi, t E n c i=1 Ai, tEi, t where liH is the …

ACID DEPOSITION, ITS EFFECTS, AND CRITICAL LOADS

Acid deposition is the deposition of air pollutants to ecosystems leading to acidification and eutrophica­tion, which cause negative effects in these ecosystems. The components contributing to acid deposition are sulfur …

HISTORICAL TRENDS IN TECHNOLOGICAL AND OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE

1.1 Technological Performance largely traded for other technological improvements, such as larger, heavier engines and increased passenger comfort.

FUTURE ABATEMENT

There are basically two ways of reducing acid deposition. Emission control technologies can be attached to smokestacks at power plants and other industries, removing the acid gases before they are …

Results and Conclusions

The thermal equivalent and Divisia EROI for petroleum extraction show significant differences(Fig. 2). The quality-corrected EROI declines faster than the thermal-equivalent EROI. The thermal - equivalent EROI increased by 60% …

AND DEPOSITION

The causal chain represents the sequence of emis­sions into the atmosphere, transport and chemical reactions, deposition to the earth surface, and cycling within the ecosystems until eventually the compo­nents are …

Consequences of Carbon Management: Addressing Greenhouse Gases for Energy Nitrogen and Sulfur

If the energy system of the world remains based on fossil fuels throughout the 21st century and little is done to target the atmospheric emissions of CO2, it is plausible …

CASE STUDY 2: CAUSALITY IN THE ENERGY/GDP RELATIONSHIP

One of the most important questions about the environment-economy relationship regards the strength of the linkage between economic growth and energy use. With a few exceptions, most analyses ignore the …

Transport and Deposition

The sulfur compounds are converted to sulfuric acid and NOx to nitric acid, and ammonia reacts with these acids to form ammonium salts. Both precursors (SO2, NOx, and NH3) and …

Aggregation of Energy

CUTLER J. CLEVELAND and ROBERT K. KAUFMANN Boston University Boston, Massachusetts, United States DAVID I. STERN Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York, United States 1. Energy Aggregation and Energy Quality …

Granger Causality and the Energy GDP Relation

A series of analyses use statistical tests to evaluate whether energy use or energy prices determine economic growth, or whether the level of output in the United States and other …

EMISSIONS FROM ENERGY USE

van Ardenne et al. provide a compilation of global sulfur emissions, mainly based on work by different authors. According to their estimates, anthropogenic contributions are on the order of 75% …

ENERGY AGGREGATION AND ENERGY QUALITY

Aggregation of primary-level economic data has received substantial attention from economists for a number of reasons. Aggregating the vast number of inputs and outputs in the economy makes it easier …

CASE STUDY 3: THE DETERMINANTS OF THE ENERGY/ GDP RELATIONSHIP

One of the most widely cited macroeconomic indicators of sustainability is the ratio of total energy use to total economic activity, or the energy/real GDP ratio (E/GDP ratio). This ratio …

ABATEMENT AND TRENDS IN EMISSION

Figure 5 shows the change in global emissions of SO2, NOx, and NH3 for the different source categories. The figure shows that there is a steady increase in emissions for …

ECONOMIC APPROACHES TO ENERGY QUALITY

From an economic perspective, the value of a heat equivalent of fuel is determined by its price. Price­taking consumers and producers set marginal utilities and products of the different energy …

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS

Application of the Divisia index to energy use in the U. S. economy illustrates the importance of energy quality in aggregate analysis. The quality-corrected index for EROI indicates that the …

United States

For SO2, the Acid Rain Program places a mandatory ceiling, or cap, on emissions nationwide from electric TABLE I Percentage Changes in Total Emissions of SO2, NOX, NH3, and VOCs …

Price-Based Aggregation

If marginal product is related to its price, energy quality can be measured by using the price of fuels to weight their heat equivalents. The simplest approach defines the weighting …

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