Solar energy in progress and future research trends

Clouds

For many reasons, clouds are critical ingredients of climate and many renewable energy resources availability at a location on the world [86]. At any instant about half of the earth is covered by clouds. The clouds are highly dynamic in relation to atmospheric circulation. Especially, the irradia - tive properties of clouds make them a key component of the earth’s energy budget and hence solar energy.

It is an unfortunate characteristic of solar energy that it arrives in a quite random manner depending on the meteorological conditions. It does not arrive all times that suit our needs. Since, the time of usage does not match with the time of availability, it is necessary to store the solar energy at times of availability so as to use it at later times of need.

Cloud particles interact strongly with SW and LW radiations. The scattering efficiency of cloud particles makes them highly reflective to visible radiation.

Solar energy in progress and future research trends

Spatial solar radiation estimation

In the previous sections, the modeling of solar radiation is discussed on a given site. However, in practical solar energy assessment studies, it is also necessary to have spatial (multiple …

Solar thermal collectors and applications

Extensive fossil fuel consumption in almost all human activities led to some undesirable phenomena such as atmospheric and environmental pollutions, which have not been experienced before in known human history. …

Heat transfer and losses

As explained earlier the easiest way of solar radiation collection is for low temperature heating purposes. It is well known that black surfaces absorb solar radiation more than any other …

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