New developments in advanced welding

Sources of further information and advice

4.6.7 Professional bodies

There exists a number of professional bodies in various countries around the world whose members can provide information and advice, as summarized in Table 4.1. The predominant body is probably the Laser Institute of America which in spite of the ‘America’ in the name is an international organization. For example, at their 2002 annual conference, the International Conference on Applications of Lasers and ElectroOptics, or ICALEO, only about half the attendees were from the USA; there were 101 attendees from 14 European countries, and 43 attendees from six Asian countries, in spite of limitations on travel due to political events and epidemics.

Table 4.1 Professional bodies/industrial organizations

Country

Name of organization

Contact information

USA

Laser Institute of America

12424 Research Parkway, Ste 125, Orlando, FL, 32826, USA

United Kingdom

Association of Industrial Laser Users

Oxford House, 100 Ock Street, Abingdon, Oxfordshire,

OX14 5DH, UK

Former Soviet Union

Laser Association (LAS)

Russia, 117485, PB 27 Moscow

Japan

Japan Welding Engineering Society, Laser Materials Processing Committee

Kanda-Sakuma-cho 1-11, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo,

Japan 101-0025

China

Laser Processing Committee of China Optical Society

c/o Minlin Zhong, Secretary- General Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China

4.6.8 Research groups

There are several research groups with considerable skill in laser processing. Table 4.2 gives a representative sample.

Table 4.2 Research organizations

Country

Name of organization

Contact information

USA

Edison Welding Institute

1250 Arthur E Adams Drive, Columbus, OH, 43221, USA

USA

Applied Research Laboratory, Penn State University

PO Box 30, State College, PA, 16804, USA

United

Kingdom

The Welding Institute

Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, CB1 6AL, UK

India

Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

P. O. CAT, Indore 452 013, M. P. India

Ukraine

Laser Technology Research Institute, Kiev Polytechnic Institute

01056 Kiev, Ukraine, PR. Peremohy, 37

Canada

Integrated Manufacturing Technology Institute, National Research Council of Canada

800 Collip Circle, London, Ontario, N6G 4X8, Canada

Japan

Welding Research Institute, Osaka University

11-1 Mihogaoka, Iaraki, Osaka 867-0047, Japan

Australia

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology

PO Box 4, Woodville, South Australia 5011, Australia

Finland

Laser Processing Center, Lappeenranta University of Technology

Tuotantokatu 2, FIN-53850 Lappeenranta, Finland

Germany

Fraunhofer Institute, e. g. Institut Werkstoff-und Strahltechnik

Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden, Germany

4.6.9 Laser beam welding standards

For the first two decades of laser welding, there were no widely recognized standards regulating the process. Many companies that depended on the process developed their own procedure specification and qualification procedures, or used those previously employed for electron beam welding. In the last dozen years there has been a flurry of international activity. The European standard committee and the ISO organization have proposed and approved a variety of standards, largely relating to equipment. In 2002, the standard Specification and Qualification of Welding Procedures for Metallic Materials - Welding Procedure Specification - Part 4: Laser Beam Welding, ISO/FDIS 15609-4:2002 was circulated for approval. Other relevant documents include ISO/DIS 15614-11, Specification and Approval of Welding Procedures for Metallic Materials - Welding Procedure Test, Part II, Electron and Laser Beam Welding. Further information and copies of the specifications are available from the ISO secretariat, at International Organization for Standardization, DIN Burggrafenstr 6, 10787 Berlin, Germany.

The American Welding Society has compiled an American national standard ANSI/AWS C7.2 Recommended Practices for Laser Beam Welding Cutting and Drilling, based upon input from a committee of laser suppliers, users and researchers. It is expected that a Process Specification and Operator Qualification for Laser Beam Welding to be released in 2006. These standards are available from the American Welding Society at 550 NW LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126, USA.

The need for and the existence of these standards and specifications indicates that laser welding is now a mature process, accepted for industrial practices.

4.7 References

Albright C. E. and Chiang S. (1988), ‘High speed welding instabilities’, Journal Laser Applications, 1988, 18-24 Anon (1995), ‘Nippon Steel to invest $70,000,000’, The Laser’s Edge, 1(3), 6 Banas C. M. (1972), ‘Laser welding developments’, Proceedings CEGB International Conference on Welding Research Related to Power Plants, University of Southampton, England, Sept 17-21 (1972), London, Central Electricity Generating Board Banas C. M. (1986), ‘High power laser welding’, in Belforte D. and Levitt M. (eds), Industrial Laser Annual Handbook, Tulsa, Pennwell Books Banas C (1991), ‘Tech Update: Tube Welding’, The Laser’s Edge, December 1991, 2-3

Blake A. and Mazumder J. (1982), ‘Control of composition during laser welding of aluminum magnesium alloy using a plasma suppression technique’, Proceedings International Conference on Applications of Lasers and Electro Optics (ICALEO), The Laser Institute of America, Orlando FL. Sept 20-33, 1982, Boston, Mass Boechat A. A.P., Su D. and Jones J. D.C. (1993), ‘Dependence of output near-field beam profile on launching conditions in graded-index fibers used in delivery system for Nd:YAG lasers’, Applied Optics, 32, 291-7 Bolin S. R. (1976), ‘Limited penetration laser welding applications’, Australian Welding Journal, January/February 1976 23-8 Bolin S. R. (1983), ‘Nd:YAG laser applications survey’, in Bass M. (ed.), Laser Materials Processing, Amsterdam, North-Holland, 407 Brushwood J. (1984), Assessment of Materials-Processing Lasers, EPRI EM-3465. Palo Alto, Electric Power Research Institute DeMaria A. J. (1976), ‘Review of high power CO2 lasers’, in Bekefi G (ed.), Principles of Laser Plasmas, New York, J Wiley and Sons Dowden J., Davis M. and Kapadia P. (1983), ‘Some aspects of the fluid dynamics of laser welding’, Journal Fluid Mechanics, 126, 123-46 Fuerschbach P. W. and Hinkley D. A. (1997), ‘Pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of cardiac pacemaker batteries with reduced heat input’, Welding Journal: Welding Research Supplement, March 1997, 103S-109S Graham M. P. and Weckman D. C. (1995), ‘A comparison of rotating-wire-and rotating- pinhole-type laser beam analyzers when used to measure pulsed Nd: YAG laser beams’, Measurement Science and Technology, 6, 1492-9

Hayes R. H. (1997), ‘An innovative technology for the gas turbine component repair industry’, World Aviation Gas Turbine Engine Overhaul and Repair Conference Hyatt C. V. and Magee K. H. (1994), ‘Laser surface melting and cladding of nickel aluminum bronzes’ in Proceedings of Advanced Methods of Joining New Materials II, Miami, The American Welding Society, 111-26 Hyatt C. V. and Majumdar A. (2000), ‘Effect of microstructure on the erosion corrosion and cavitation erosion behavior of laser clad nickel aluminum bronzes’, Proceedings 12th International Federation of Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering Conference, Melbourne, Australia Melbourne, Institute of Materials Engineering, 119-21 Hyatt C. V., Magee K. H. and Betancourt T. (1998), ‘The effect of heat input on the microstructure and properties of nickel aluminum bronze laser clad with a consumable of composition Cu-9.0Al-4.6Ni-3.9Fe-1.2Mn’, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 29A 1677-90

Kawai Y., Alhara M., Ishii K., Tabuchi M. and Sasaki H. (1984), ‘Development of laser welder for strip processing line’, Kawasaki Steel Technical Report, 10, 39-46 Koechner W. (1976), Solid State Laser Engineering, New York, Springer Verlag Krause S. (2001), ‘An advanced repair technique: laser powder buildup welding’, Sulzer Technical Review, 4, 4-6 Locke E. V., Hoag E. D. and Hella R. A. (1972), ‘Deep penetration welding with high power CO2 lasers’, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, QE-8, 132-5 MacCallum D. O., Fuerschbach P. W., Milewski J. O. and Piltch M. (2000), ‘Beam characterization of high power fiber delivered Nd:YAG lasers’, at the American Welding Society Convention, Chicago IL, April 25-27 Matsuyama H., Kano J., Shibata K. and Ninomiya R. (2000), Process and materials development for laser cladding valve seats on aluminum engine heads’, Powertrain International, 3(2), 40-8 Mehta P., Cooper E. B. and Otten R. (1984), ‘Reverse machining via CO2 laser’, in Mazumder J. (ed.), Proceedings of the Materials Processing Symposium, International Conference on Applications of Lasers and ElectroOptics, Orlando, Laser Institute of America, Orlando, FL, 168-76 Metzbower E. A. (1981), ‘Laser welding’, Naval Engineers Journal, August 1981, 49-58 Milewski J. O., Lewis G. K., Thoma D. J., Keel G. I., Nemec R. B. and Reiner T. R.A. (1998), ‘Directed light fabrication of a solid metal hemisphere using 5-axis powder deposition’, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 75, 165-72 Notenboom G. (1984), ‘Laser spot welding in the electronics industry, in Crafer R., (ed.), Laser Welding, Cutting, and Surface Treatment, Abington, UK, The Welding Institute

O’Brian R. L. (1991), Welding Handbook, 8th ed., Volume 2, Welding Processes, Miami, American Welding Society Offenberger A. A., Kerr R. D. and Smy PR. (1972), ‘Plasma diagnostics using CO2 laser absorption and interferometry’, Journal Applied Physics, 43 574-7 Ono M., Shiozaki T., Ohmura M., Nagahama H. and Kohno K. (1996), ‘High power laser application for steel industry’ in Proceedings 6th European Conference on Laser Treatment of Materials, September, Stuttgart Patel C. K.N. (1969), ‘High power carbon dioxide lasers’, in Schawlow A. L. (ed.), Lasers and Light, Readings from Scientific American, San Francisco, W. H. Freeman and Company

Swift-Hook D. T. and Gick A. E.F. (1973), ‘Penetration welding with lasers’, Welding Journal: Welding Research Supplement, 488S-492S

Zacharia T., David S. A., Vitek J. M. and DebRoy T. (1990), ‘Modeling the effect of surface active elements on weld pool fluid flow, heat transfer, and geometry’, in David S. A. and Vitek T. M. (eds), Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Trends in Welding Research, Gatlinburg TN, May 14-19, 1989, Materials Park Ohio USA, ASM International

New developments in advanced welding

Environmental issues

10.4.1 Introduction The last 30 or more years have seen a significant awakening of interest in the environment and a much greater understanding of how human activities in one geographical …

Recent and ongoing research

10.3.1 Fundamental difficulties Despite the labour figures indicating that around 400000 people in the USA are directly engaged in welding, it is difficult to research health effects and make positive …

Occupational health and safety

F. J. BLUNT, University of Cambridge, UK 10.1 Introduction The welding industry is a major player in manufacturing. It encompasses the traditional arc and gas processes as well as advanced …

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