New developments in advanced welding

Future trends

The following trends can be anticipated in GMA welding within the next

five years. The following areas are important:

(1) process simulation and modelling,

(2) sensing and control,

(3) cost reduction and

(4) new applications.

• Improved computer simulations of the welding process and implementation in production welding;

• Improved sensing and signal acquisition before, during and after welding and inclusion in a comprehensive control system. This effort will require increased sensitivity to downstream manufacturing practices to improve part fitup;

• Improved power source technology via digital controls and improved control of the welding arcs;

• Applications: extension of the process to reduced base metal thickness and higher deposition rates. Even further miniaturisation (or MEMS: micro­electro-mechanical systems) can be expected to penetrate the GMAW equipment world;

• Automation: remote operation (depths, heights, hazardous environments);

• In semi-automatic applications: integration of all essential functions in the welding torch;

• Deposition rates and cost reductions - more hybrid and new process variants, lower cost filler wires and shielding gases (push toward self­shielded fluxed core arc welding;

• Controls: digital networks, qualifications.

1.2 References

Adam G., Siewert T. A., Quinn T. P. and Vigliotti D. P. (2001), ‘Contact tube temperature during GMAW’, Welding Journal, Dec. 2001, 37-41

Adolfsson S., Bahrami P. et al. (1999), ‘On line quality monitoring in short circuit GMA welding’, Welding Journal, Research Supplement, 59s-73s, Feb. 1999

Adonyi Y. (2002), ‘Welding process effects in hydrogen induced cracking susceptibility of high performance steels’, Welding Journal, Research Supplement, 61s-68s, Apr. 2002

Allen T. T. and Richardson R. W. et al (2002), ‘Statistical process design for robotic GMA welding of sheet metal, Welding Journal, Research Supplement, 69s-77s, May 2002

Ghosh P. K. and Rai B. K. (1996), ‘Characteristics of pulsed current bead on plate deposit in flux cored GMAW process’, ISIJ Int., 36(8), 1036-45

Ghosh P. K., Gupta S. R., Gupta P. C. and Rathi R. (1990a), ‘Influence of pulsed MIG welding on the microstructure and porosity content of Al-Zn-Mg alloy weldment’, Practical Metallography, 27, 613-26

Ghosh P. K., Gupta S. R., Gupta P. C. and Rathi R. (1990b), ‘Pulsed MIG welding of Al - Zn-Mg alloy’, Materials Trans. JIM, 31(8), 723-9 Ghosh P. K., Gupta P. C., Gupta S. R. and Rathi R. (1991), ‘Fatigue characteristics of pulsed MIG welded Al-Zn-Mg alloy’, J. Mater. Sci., 26, 6161-70 Ghosh P. K., Dorn L. and Issler L. (1994), ‘Fatigue crack growth behaviour of pulsed current MIG weld of Al-Zn-Mg alloy’, Int. J. Join. Mater., 6(4), 163-8 Ghosh P. K., Gupta P. C. and Goyal V. K. (1998), ‘Stainless steel cladding of structural steel plate using pulsed current GMAW process’, Weld. J., AWS, 77(7), 307-12s Ghosh P. K. and Hussain H. M. (2002), ‘Morphology and porosity content of multipass pulsed current GMA weld of Al-Zn-Mg alloy’, Int. J. Join. Mater., 41(1/2), 16-26 Gupta P. C., Ghosh P. K. and Vissa S. (1988), ‘Influence of pulse frequency on the properties of HAZ in pulsed MIG welded Al-Zn-Mg alloy’, Proc. Int. Conf on Welding Technology in Developing Countries - Present Status and Future Needs, September 26-28, (1988), pp. 71-77

Himmelbauer K., (2003), ‘Digital Welding’, Fronius International, Proprietary reports and presentations

Hsu C. and Soltis P. (2002), ‘Heat input comparison of SST vs. short circuiting and pulsed GMAW vs. CV processes’, Sixth International Conference on Welding Research, Pine Mountains, GA, 2002 Hussain H. M., Ghosh P. K., Gupta P. C. and Potluri N. B. (1997), ‘Fatigue crack growth properties of pulse current multipass MIG weld of Al-Zn-Mg alloy’, Trans. Ind. Inst. Met, 50(4), 275-85

Hussain H. M., Ghosh P. K., Gupta P. C. and Potluri N. B. (1999), ‘Fracture toughness of pulse current multipass GMA weld of Al-Zn-Mg alloy’, Int. J. Join. Mater., 11(3), 77-88

Joseph A., Harwig D. D., Farson D. and Richardson R. (2002), Assessing the effects of GMAW-P parameters on arc power and heat input’, EWI Report Khang Y. H. and Na S. J. (2003), ‘Characteristics of welding and arc signal in narrow groove GMAW using electromagnetic arc oscillation’, Welding Journal, Research Supplement, 82(15), 93s-9s, May 2003 Kotecki D. J. (2001), ‘Carbon pickup from argon-CO2 blends in GMAW’, Welding Journal, 43-8, Dec. 2001

Lancaster J. F. (1984), The Physics of Welding, London, International Institute of Welding and Pergamon Press

Myers D. (2001), ‘Metal cored wires: advantages and disadvantages’, Welding Journal, 39-42, Dec. 2001

Nadzam J., (2003), Gas Metal Arc Welding: Process Overview, Lincoln Electric Company, Technology Center, Internal report Padilla T. M., Quinn T. P., Munoz D. R. and Rorrer R. A.L. (2003), Mathematical model of wire feeding mechanisms in GMAW welding’, Welding Journal, Research Supplement, 100s-109s, May 2003

Quinn T. P. (2002), ‘Process sensitivity in gas metal arc welding of aluminum vs. steel’, Welding Journal, Research Supplement, 55s-60s, Apr. 2002 Staufer H., et al., (2003), Laser Hybrid Welding and LaserBrazing: State-of-the-art in Technology and Practice: Audi A8 and VW paeton, Internal Publication, Fronius International GmbH, Wels, Austria Subramaniam D. R., White J. E. et al., (1999), ‘Experimental approach to selection of pulsing parameters in pulsed GMAW’, Welding Journal, Research Supplement, 166s - 172s, May 1999

Vaidya V. V. (2001), ‘Shielding gas mixtures for semiautomatic welds’, Welding Journal, 43-8, Sep. 2002

Zavodny J. (2001), ‘Welding with the right shielding gas’, Welding Journal, 49-50, Dec. 2001

Zhang Y. L., Li PJ. (2001), ‘Modified active control metal transfer and pulsed GMAW in titanium’, Welding Journal, Research Supplement, 54s-61s, Febr. 2001

New developments in advanced welding

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