The welding of aluminium and its alloys

Weld defects and quality control

11.1 Introduction

Previous chapters have covered those defects and losses in strength that may be described as arising from metallurgical effects. This chapter covers those defects that may be described as defects of geometry, their causes and the non-destructive testing techniques that may be used to detect them. Many of these defects are caused by the welder, because of either a lack of care or a lack of skill, and emphasise the need for adequate training. Similarly, if non-destructive testing is to be correctly performed and defects accurately identified and sized, well-trained and experienced non­destructive evaluation (NDE) operatives are needed. A simple and inexpensive non-destructive examination technique that is sometimes overlooked is that of a thorough visual examination by a suitably trained and experienced welding inspector. Such an examination will identify many defects, particularly those of shape as listed in Section 11.2 below.

The welding of aluminium and its alloys

Alloy designations: wrought products

Table A.4 BS EN BS EN Old BS/DTD Temperature (°C) numerical chemical number designation designation Liquidus Solidus IVIdUng range Al 99.99 1 660 660 0 AW-1080A Al 99.8 1A AW-1070A …

Principal alloy designations: cast products

Table A.3 BS EN numerical designation BS EN chemical designation Old BS number ANSI designation Temperature (°C) Liquidus Solidus Melting range Al 99.5 LM0 640 658 18 AC-46100 Al Si10Cu2Fe …

Physical, mechanical and chemical properties at 20°C

Table A.2 Property Aluminium Iron Nickel Copper Titanium Crystal structure FCC BCC FCC FCC HCP Density (gm/cm3) 2.7 7.85 8.9 8.93 4.5 Melting point (°C) 660 1536 1455 1083 1670 …

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