The welding of aluminium and its alloys

TIG spot and plug welding

By overlapping two plates a spot weld can be achieved by using the DCEN TIG process to fuse through the top plate and melt into the lower plate. Initial use of the process was carried out without a filler wire but hot crack­ing problems with the alloys meant that it was confined to pure aluminium up to 2 mm thick. The development of automatic wire feeding systems capable of feeding wire into the weld pool as the weld is terminated has helped in extending the range of alloys that could be welded. Even with this improvement, however, it has been found that the critical nature of the surface condition causes welding defects such as oxide films. This means that the process does not find general use because of low strength and poor quality.

Further work has taken place using fully automated equipment and helium shield gas and with low-frequency AC. These improvements have resulted in a wider use of the process but MIG spot welding tends to be preferred as providing better and more consistent quality.

The welding of aluminium and its alloys

Alloy designations: wrought products

Table A.4 BS EN BS EN Old BS/DTD Temperature (°C) numerical chemical number designation designation Liquidus Solidus IVIdUng range Al 99.99 1 660 660 0 AW-1080A Al 99.8 1A AW-1070A …

Principal alloy designations: cast products

Table A.3 BS EN numerical designation BS EN chemical designation Old BS number ANSI designation Temperature (°C) Liquidus Solidus Melting range Al 99.5 LM0 640 658 18 AC-46100 Al Si10Cu2Fe …

Physical, mechanical and chemical properties at 20°C

Table A.2 Property Aluminium Iron Nickel Copper Titanium Crystal structure FCC BCC FCC FCC HCP Density (gm/cm3) 2.7 7.85 8.9 8.93 4.5 Melting point (°C) 660 1536 1455 1083 1670 …

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