Where new work has to be fitted to existing work or built to specific dimensions, as, for instance, built-in cupboards or panelling, on­site measurements must be taken. Assuming that an interior has to be measured (329:1), individual details should not be measured separately, but a running total should be preserved. Where corners or angles occur then templates should be made up from slat-wood (329:2), screwed together and carefully numbered; they can. then be unscrewed, bundled and reassembled in the workshop. Curves or irregular shapes can be scribed by fitting a waste piece of plywood, etc. up against the curve and scribing with a pair of wing - compasses, small block or the workshop rule, or a piece of stiff brown paper can be slit as shown in 329:3, the paper pushed against the curve and the strips bent back as in the dotted line. The approximate outline is then transferred to a piece of plywood and corrected as necessary.

328 Laying out with card template

For small details the Maco brass template shown in 207:2 is invaluable. Cupboards which have to fit existing openings must either have scribing fillets planted on or extra wide stiles or marginal moulds which are scribed and cut to the opening on the site. It is never wise to assume that plastered walls will be straight, corners square or floors level, for they rarely are.


Impressions of carvings, mouldings, etc. are taken with artist's modelling-wax, hot paraffin - wax or dental quality plaster of Paris obtainable at most pharmacies. Plaster will give the cleanest impression providing there is no under­cutting and the original is heavily waxed to facilitate release. From this first impression a mould can be struck, again with plaster of Paris, which can be used as a pattern for metal casting. More permanent moulds can be formed with resin-impregnated glass fibre (see also p. 00) and for small work with intricate detail Araldite epoxy cement with or without reinforcement.

Details of flat relief carvings, frets, etc. can be obtained by laying a sheet of paper on the carving and rubbing over with heelball or soft - lead pencil. Inlays and marquetry-work can also be rubbed in this way, for there is usually sufficient proudness or recession of the individual pieces to give a reasonable impression which can be sketched in more firmly.

329 Site measurements and templates

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Where no previous records are available the proprietor must assess his own capabilities and those of his employees. Common joinery items are usually in softwood of fairly large dimensions, with …

Costs of man-hours

The total cost of man-hours at the rates paid, plus overtime rates where applicable, plus health insurance, pensions, paid holidays, etc. have to be considered. Here again these may be …

Appendix: Costing and estimating

Costing is the pricing of completed work taking into account not only all the direct expenses— materials, wages and insurances, fuel and power, machining costs, workshop expenses, etc.—but also a …

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