Solar thermal collectors and applications

Solar refrigeration

Solar cooling can be considered for two related processes: to provide refrigeration for food and medicine preservation and to provide comfort cooling. Solar refriger­ation systems usually operate at intermitted cycles and produce much lower temperatures (ice) than in air conditioning. When the same cycles are used in space cooling they operate on continuous cycles. The cycles employed for solar refrigeration are the absorption and adsorption. During the cooling portion of the cycles, the refrigerant is evaporated and reabsorbed. In these systems the absorber and generator are separate vessels. The generator can be integral part of the collector, with refrigerant absorbent solution in the tubes of the collector circulated by a combination of a thermosyphon and a vapour lift pump.

There are many options available which enable the integration of solar energy into the process of ‘cold’ production. Solar refrigeration can be accomplished by using either a thermal energy source supplied from a solar collector or electricity supplied from photovoltaics. This can be achieved by using either thermal adsorption or absorption units or conventional refrigeration equipment powered from photovoltaics. Solar refrigeration is employed mainly to cool vaccine stores in areas with no mains electricity and for solar space cooling.

Photovoltaic refrigeration, although uses standard refrigeration equipment which is an advantage, has not achieved widespread use because of the low efficiency and high cost of the photovoltaic cells. As photovoltaics are not covered in this paper details are given only on the solar adsorption and absorption units with more emphasis on the latter.

Solar thermal collectors and applications

Collector thermal efficiency

In reality the heat loss coefficient UL in Eqs (2) and (42) is not constant but is a function of collector inlet and ambient temperatures. Therefore: TOC o "1-5" h …

Global climate change

The term greenhouse effect has generally been used for the role of the whole atmosphere (mainly water vapour and clouds) in keeping the surface of the earth warm. Recently however, …

Limitations of simulations

Simulations are powerful tools for process design offering a number of advantages as outlined in the previous sections. However, there are limits to their use. For example, it is easy …

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