Solar thermal collectors and applications

Polysun simulation program

Polysun program provides dynamical annual simulations of solar thermal systems and helps to optimise them [120]. It operates with dynamic time steps from 1 s to 1 h, thus simulation can be more stable and exact. The program is user friendly and the graphic-user interface permits a comfortable and clear input of all system parameters. All aspects of the simulation are based on physical models that work without empirical correlation terms. In addition

X =

Подпись: X =



Подпись: (84) (85)


Y = FR(ra)n-R


Подпись: FR Y = FR(ra)n-R FR the program performs economic viability analysis and ecological balance, which includes emissions from the eight most significant greenhouse gasses, thus the emissions of systems working only with conventional fuel and systems employing solar energy can be compared. Program Polysun was validated by Gantner [121] and was found to be accurate to within 5-10%.

Solar thermal collectors and applications

Collector thermal efficiency

In reality the heat loss coefficient UL in Eqs (2) and (42) is not constant but is a function of collector inlet and ambient temperatures. Therefore: TOC o "1-5" h …

Global climate change

The term greenhouse effect has generally been used for the role of the whole atmosphere (mainly water vapour and clouds) in keeping the surface of the earth warm. Recently however, …

Limitations of simulations

Simulations are powerful tools for process design offering a number of advantages as outlined in the previous sections. However, there are limits to their use. For example, it is easy …

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