Quality Assessment Based Upon Comparison with Models

Many models based on the physics of radiation transfer through the clear atmo­sphere have been developed (Lacis and Hansen 1974; Atwater and Ball 1978; Hoyt 1978; Bird and Hulstrom 1981a, …

Solar Horizontal Diffuse and Beam Irradiation on Clear Days

There exist a number of models to determine the solar horizontal diffuse irradia­tion on a clear day (Kondratyev 1969) but they are complex and have very stringent conditions. Similarly, there …

Foreword

Reading the twenty chapters of this book caused me mixed reactions, though all were positive. My responses were shaped by several factors. Although I have main­tained a “watching brief’ on …

Modelling the Statistical Properties of Solar Radiation and Proposal of a Technique Based on Boltzmann Statistics

Joaquin Tovar-Pescador 1 Introduction Solar radiation affects all the Earth’s processes related to the environment and plays a fundamental role in the development of human activities. Among these processes, solar …

Radiometer Uncertainty Sources

Sensitivity Functions Combined uncertainties depend on the product of the sensitivity functions (par­tial derivatives of the response with respect to the measurement equation variables) and error source magnitudes, et. The …

Parameter’s Dependence on the Local Climatology

As we have shown, the distributions and models proposed depend on the local cli­mate. In the case of the Tovar’s model the parameters A1, A2, kt01, kt02, X1, ^2 should …

Conclusions

We urge the reader to remember, as he or she studies the rest of this book, that there are no perfect measurements. However, the field of solar radiometry has critically …

Clear Day Horizontal Beam Irradiation

The clear day horizontal beam irradiation is also defined as that incident on a hor­izontal surface on a clear day, viz., KT > 0.7. The clear day horizontal beam index …

Preface

Solar radiation data at ground level are important for a wide range of applications in meteorology, engineering, agricultural sciences (particularly for soil physics, agri­cultural hydrology, crop modeling and estimating crop …

Physical and Statistical Modelling of Solar Radiation

In order to understand and to model the behaviour of solar radiation, two approaches can be used (Festa and Ratto, 1993). a) The first one is called “physical modelling”, and …

Thermal Offsets

Climate research studies of solar radiation instrumentation, such as those made by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) participants, have characterized thermal offsets in thermopile pyranometers with all-black sensors measuring …

Distributions of 1-minute кb Values Conditioned by Optical Air Mass

Figure 3.16 shows the kb frequency distributions for different optical air masses for Armilla (Spain). All the curves present a bimodal appearance, with two well de­fined maxima. The first maximum, …

Fractal Classification of Typical Meteorological Days from Global Solar Irradiance: Application to Five Sites of Different Climates

Samia Harrouni 1 Introduction To electrify remote areas, the use of solar energy is the best economical and techno­logical solution. The choice of the sites for the installation of photovoltaic …

Correlation Between Clear Day Horizontal Diffuse and Beam Indices

Ever since the publication of the pioneering work by Liu and Jordan (1960) there have been persistent efforts to develop correlations between global, direct and dif­fuse irradiation. We have previously …

Acknowledgments

A critical part of writing any book is the reviewing process, and the authors and ed­itor are very much obliged to the following researchers who patiently helped them read through …

Stochastic Processes. Stationarity

Stochastic processes concern sequences of events governed by probabilistic laws (Karlin and Taylor 1975). A stochastic process X={X(t), t є T} is a collection of random variables. That is, for …

Geometric, Environmental and Equipment Uncertainty

Additional contributors to the uncertainty of all radiometers include: temperature coefficients, linearity, thermal electromotive forces, and electromagnetic interfer­ence. Moreover, the field of view of many pyrheliometers differs from that of …

One-Minute kd Values Distributions Conditioned by the Optical Air Mass

The analysis of the experimental distributions of 1-minute horizontal diffuse irradi­ation has been carried out following the same approach as for kt and kb. The diffuse component has been analysed …

Solar Radiation

This section reviews the properties of solar radiation on Earth and summaries well-known models which are used to estimate the amount of radiation falling on a tilted plane. Extraterrestrial solar …

Analysis of Solar Irradiation Distribution Types

The analysis of the frequency distribution and distribution type of a particular solar irradiation database are very important parameters in the design of solar irradia­tion conversion systems. The conversion system …

Solar Radiation Measurement: Progress in Radiometry for Improved Modeling

Christian A. Gueymard and Daryl R. Myers 1 Introduction This chapter is designed to be a concise introduction to modern solar radiometry and how solar radiation measurements can be properly …

The “k” Indices

The seasonal and diurnal variations of solar irradiance are described by well - established astronomical relationships. At the short-term, the behaviour of solar radiation is mainly ruled by the stochastic …

Optimal Radiometry and Correction Techniques

Previous sections have described the sources of errors that affect solar radiation measurements. During the last decade, the results from high-quality research in ra - diometry have considerably improved our …

Conditioned Distributions kt

We have also analysed the PDFs and the CDFs of the kt conditioned by the kt hourly average value represented, respectively, by f(kt|kH) and F(kt|kH) expressions. In order to obtain …

Discussion of the Two Methods

According to the analysis of Dubuc et al. (Dubuc et al. 1989), the Box-counting dimension and the Minkowski-Bouligand dimension are mathematically equivalent in limit thus, Db = Dm. However, they …

Frequency Distribution and Distribution Types for Clear Day Irradiation Index

The frequency distribution type for each monthly Kc database was determined based upon their respective skewness and kurtosis values. It was observed that January, February, March and December are classified …

Solar Radiation Measurement Fundamentals

Solar radiation consists of electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Sun in spectral regions ranging from X-rays to radio waves. Terrestrial applications of renewable energy utilizing solar radiation generally rely on …

Density and Cumulative Distribution Functions

In mathematical sense a histogram is simply a mapping mi that counts the number of observations (frequencies) that fall into various disjoint categories (known as bins or intervals). The histograms …

Measurement Networks and Data Quality Assessment

Finding measured solar radiation data involves locating measurement networks and experimental stations. Most countries have established and maintained national net­works, but the number and quality of these networks is constantly …

Conclusions and Future Work

We would like to relate some of the main results of this work and to discuss the future research in the field of the modelling of the statistical properties of …

Measuring the Fractal Dimension of Signals

4.1 A Survey of Existing Methods Many natural processes described by time series (e. g., noises, economical and de­mographic data, electric signals... etc.) are also fractals in the sense that …

Frequency Distribution and Distribution Types for Clear Day Horizontal Beam Irradiation Index

The frequency distribution of the clear day horizontal beam irradiation index for the database consisting of all 12 months is shown in Fig. 4.9. Since the data are normalized, viz., …

Components of Solar Radiation in the Atmosphere

From the Earth, the solar disk subtends a solid angle of about 0.5° on average. Due to the eccentricity of the Earth’s elliptical orbit (0.0167), the distance from the Earth …

A Research Survey on the Statistical Behaviour of Solar Radiation Components

We will shortly review here the most important studies on the statistical solar ra­diation behaviour, with special focus on those works that have produced impor­tant advances on solar radiation modelisation. …

Large Networks and Primary Data Sources

Member countries of WMO contribute measured data to the World Radiation Data Center (WRDC), located at the Main Geophysical Observatory in St. Petersburg, Russia. The WRDC serves as a central …

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