Handbook of Cellulosic Ethanol

US EPA 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards

According to the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, the projected tar­get for cellulosic ethanol for the year 2013 is 1.00 BG (Table 1.3). However the current US cellulosic ethanol production capac­ity is far below the expected target. Therefore, the target has been revised based on current advancements in technology and industry capabilities. Under the Clean Air Act Section 211(o), as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to set the annual standards under the RFS program for the following year based on gasoline and diesel projections from the Energy

Year

Renewable fuel total (BG)

Conventional

Biofuel

(i. e. corn starch) (BG)

Advanced

biofuel

(BG)

Cellulosic

biofuel

(BG)

Advanced non-cellulosic biofuel (BG)

Biobased

Diesel

(BG)

Advanced non-cellulosic non-biodiesel biofuel (BG)

2006

4.00

4.0

-

-

-

-

-

2007

4.70

4.70

-

-

-

-

-

2008

9.00

9.00

-

-

-

-

-

2009

11.10

10.50

0.60

-

-

0.50

-

2010

12.95

12.00

0.95

0.10

0.85

0.65

0.20

2011

13.95

12.60

1.35

0.25

1.10

0.80

0.30

2012

15.20

13.20

2.00

0.50

1.50

1.00

0.50

2013

16.55

13.80

2.75

1.00

1.75

1.00

0.75

2014

18.15

14.40

3.75

1.75

2.00

1.00

1.00

2015

20.50

15.00

5.50

3.00

2.50

1.00

1.50

2016

22.25

15.00

7.25

4.25

3.00

1.00

2.00

2017

24.00

15.00

9.00

5.50

3.50

1.00

2.50

2018

26.00

15.00

11.00

7.00

4.00

1.00

3.00

2019

28.00

15.00

13.00

8.50

4.50

1.00

3.50

2020

30.00

15.00

15.00

10.50

4.50

1.00

3.50

2021

33.00

15.00

18.00

13.50

4.50

1.00

3.50

2022

36.00

15.00

21.00

16.00

5.00

1.00

4.00

Renewable Fuels 23

Information Administration (EIA). The EPA is also required to set the cellulosic biofuel standard each year based on the vol­ume projected to be available during the following year, using EIA projections and assessments of production capability from industry. This U. S. EPA rulemaking provides an evaluation of the expected volumes of cellulosic biofuel at 14 million gallons. This is a more reasonable representation of the expected production. This approach to developing the cellulosic ethanol standards for 2013 is consistent with a January 2013 ruling from U. S. Court of Appeals for Washington, D. C.

Furthermore, the EPA will consider public comments before setting the annual cellulosic standards beyond 2013. This action also proposes to set the 2013 volume requirements for advanced biofuel and total renewable fuel at the levels required by the stat­ute at 2.75 and 16.55 billion gallons, respectively. The EPA previ­ously set the 2013 volume requirement for biomass-based diesel in a separate action, finalizing a volume of 1.28 billion gallons. All volumes are ethanol-equivalent, except for biomass-based die­sel which is the actual biodiesel volume. The EPA is also using the applicable volumes that are specified in the statute to set the percentage standards for advanced biofuel and total renewable fuel for 2013. These EPA expected volumes for 2013 are shown in Table 1.4 [26].

In addition to this, four separate percentage standards are required under the RFS program, corresponding to the four sep­arate volume requirements shown in Table 1.4. The percentage standards represent the ratio of renewable fuel volume to non­renewable gasoline and diesel volume. Thus, in 2013 about 10% of all fuel used will be from renewable sources. The standards for 2013 are shown in Table 1.5.

Table 1.4 Revised standards for 2013 [26]. All volumes are ethanol - equivalent, except for biomass-based diesel, which is the actual biodiesel volume.

Cellulosic biofuel

14 MG

Biomass-based diesel

1.28 BG

Advanced biofuel

2.75 BG

Renewable fuel

16.55 BG

Table 1.5 Proposed percentage standards for 2013; the percentage stan­dards represent the ratio of renewable fuel volumes to non-renewable gasoline and diesel volume [26].

Cellulosic biofuel

0.008%

Biomass-based diesel

1.12%

Advanced biofuel

1.60%

Renewable fuel

9.63%

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency document Federal Register, Vol. 7, No. 26, published on February 7, 2013 gives a detailed breakdown of the 14 MG cellulosic biofuel projection for 2013. This estimate includes cellulosic ethanol as well as cellulose - based hydrocarbon liquid fuels [27].

References

1. IEO, U. S. Energy information administration (EIA) international energy markets through 2035, 2011, U. S. Energy Information Administration: Washington, DC.

2. REN, Renewables 2012 global status report, 2012, Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century: Paris: REN21 Secretariat.

3. IEA, World energy outlook 2012, 2012, IEA: International Energy Agency 9 rue de la Federation 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France.

4. T. Jackson, Renewable energy: summary paper for the renewable series. Energy Policy 1992. 20: p. 861-863.

5. V. Menon and M. Rao, Trends in bioconversion of lignocellulose: Biofuels, platform chemicals and biorefinery concept. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 2012. 38(4): p. 522-550.

6. M. Balat, Production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials via the biochemical pathway: A review. Energy Conversion and Management, 2011. 52(2): p. 858-875.

7. M. Verma, S. Godbout, S. K. Brar, O. Solomatnikova, S. P. Lemay, and J. P. Larouche, Biofuels production from biomass by thermochemical con­version technologies. International Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2012.

8. T. Damartzis and A. Zabaniotou, Thermochemical conversion of bio­mass to second generation biofuels through integrated process design: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2011. 15(1): p. 366-378.

9. A. Demirbas, Biofuels sources, biofuel policy, biofuel economy and global biofuel projections. Energy Conversion and Management, 2008. 49(8): p. 2106-2116.

10. A. H. Demirbas and I. Demirbas, Importance of rural bioenergy for developing countries. Energy Conversion and Management, 2007. 48(8): p. 2386-2398.

11. H. Argun and F. Kargi, Bio-hydrogen production by different operational modes of dark and photo-fermentation: An overview. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2011. 36(13): p. 7443-7459.

12. P. Westermann, B. Jorgensen, L. Lange, B. K. Ahring, and C. H. Christensen, Maximizing renewable hydrogen production from biomass in a bio/catalytic refinery. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2007. 32(17): p. 4135-4141.

13. S. Ayalur Chattanathan, S. Adhikari, and N. Abdoulmoumine, A review on current status of hydrogen production from bio-oil. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2012. 16(5): p. 2366-2372.

14. G. Najafi, B. Ghobadian, and T. F. Yusaf, Algae as a sustainable energy source for biofuel production in Iran: A case study. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2011. 15(8): p. 3870-3876.

15. F. Ma and M. A. Hanna, Biodiesel production: A review. Bioresource Technology, 1999. 70(1): p. 1-15.

16. J. M. Marchetti, V. U. Miguel, and A. F. Errazu, Possible methods for biodiesel production. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2007. 11(6): p. 1300-1311.

17. Z. Helwani, M. R. Othman, N. Aziz, W. J.N. Fernando, and J. Kim, Technologies for production of biodiesel focusing on green cata­lytic techniques: A review. Fuel Processing Technology, 2009. 90(12): p. 1502-1514.

18. E. Santacesaria, G. M. Vicente, M. Di Serio, and R. Tesser, Main tech­nologies in biodiesel production: State of the art and future challenges. Catalysis Today, 2012. 195(1): p. 2-13.

19. V. B. Borugadda and V. V. Goud, Biodiesel production from renewable feedstocks: Status and opportunities. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2012. 16(7): p. 4763-4784.

20. I. M. Atadashi, M. K. Aroua, A. R. Abdul Aziz, and N. M.N. Sulaiman, The effects of catalysts in biodiesel production: A review. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2013. 19(1): p. 14-26.

21. E. M. Shahid and Y. Jamal, A review of biodiesel as vehicular fuel. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2008. 12(9): p. 2477-2487.

22. E. P. Monthly, US Energy Information Administration, U. D.o. Energy, Editor 2013.

23. IEA, Advanced Motor Fuels Annual Report 2010, ed. I. E. Agency 2010, NREL, Boulder: NREL.

24. Energy. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. http://www. afdc. energy. gov/fuels/laws/3252/US 2013.

25. EISA2007, Energy independence and security act of 2007 in public law 110-140—DEC. 19, 20072007.

26. EPA, EPA Proposes 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards, in Office of Transportation and Air Quality EPA-420-F-13-007 January 20132013.

27. Federal Register, Vol. 78, No. 26, in 40CFR Part 80, Regulations of Fuels and Fuel Additives, P. V. Environmental Protection Agencey, Editor 2013.

Handbook of Cellulosic Ethanol

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