Syngas and Hydrogen Applications

For synthesis-gas application the situation is somewhat different. In this case the moles of H2+CO per unit feedstock have to be optimized. The effect of the operating conditions on this maximum is illustrated in Figure 2-8.

The optimum along the abscissa is caused by the effect that at lower temperatures more carbon is converted into C02 and CH4, whereas the aim is to convert it as much as possible in CO. There is also a maximum along the ordinate. This is caused by the fact that by adding somewhat more steam less CH4 will be formed and some additional heat will be generated by the CO shift reaction.

The latter effects are small, but they are there. The result is that for a fixed heat loss and reactant composition and temperature, there is one point that yields the maximum amount of synthesis gas. The effect is of more importance to heavy oil gasification than for coal gasification, as the ash limitations for coal do not allow an operation at such low temperatures where these effects become relevant.


Barin, I. Thermo-Chemical Data of Pure Substances. Weinheim: VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1989. Gumz, W. Gas Producers and Blast Furnaces. New York: John Wiley & Sons., 1950. Kersten, S. R. A. Biomass Gasification in Circulating Fluidized Beds. Enschede: Twente University Press, 2002.

Lath, E., and Herbert, P. “Make CO from Coke, C02, and 02.” Hydrocarbon Processing 65(8) (August 1986):55-56.

Reimert, R. “Gas Production.” In Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 5th ed., vol. A 12. Weinheim: VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1989, pp. 218-220. van der Burgt, M. J. “Techno-Historical Aspects of Coal Gasification in Relation to IGCC Plants.” Paper presented at 11th EPRI Conference on Gas-Fired Power Plants, San Francisco., 1992.

Chapter З


Liquid Wastes

Organic Chemical Waste. Organic wastes from chemical production vary as widely as the processes from which they originate. One published example is the feedstock to a waste gasification plant at …

Carbon Management

In the Texaco process, soot is extracted from the carbon-water mixture with naphtha and recycled with the feedstock to the reactor where it is gasified to extinction. The black water …

Common Issues

Operating Temperature Any fluid bed depends on having the solid particles of a size that can be lifted by the upward flowing gas. A large portion (over 95%) of the …

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