Gasification

Pyrolysis Processes

As discussed in Section 4.3, the logistics of biomass collection will in general limit biomass gasification facilities to a maximum of 30-40 MWth. In order to overcome this limitation in benefiting from the economies of scale, the combination of decen­tralized pyrolysis plant and a central bio-oil gasifier has been proposed (e. g., Henrich, Dinjus, and Meier 2002).

Figure 5-39 shows a generic bio-oil plant in which typically about 75% of the dry feedstock is recovered as bio-oil. Char (10-15 wt%) and gas (15-20 wt%) are recovered and combusted to supply the heat required for drying the feedstock and heating the reactor. The pyrolysis takes place at about 450^475 °С with a residence time of the order of magnitude of about 1 second.

Biomass pyrolysis processes are at this stage still in their infancy. There are a number of small-scale commercial and demonstration plants that have been built, the most important or representative of which are listed in Table 5-20.

The principle current use for bio-oil includes specialty chemicals, which are essential for economics at present (Freel 2002).

Various projects are in preparation for testing equipment with bio-oil feeds. Fortum have a burner-testing program with Oilon Oy. Test programs for slow-speed marine

Figure 5-39. Block Flow Diagram for a Bio-Oil Plant (Source: Meier 2002)

Table 5-20

Bio-Oil Pilot and Demonstration Plants

Company, Trade

Plant

Country Name

Size

Technology

Comments

Dynamotive, Biotherm™

10t/d

Stationary

In planning 100 t/d

Canada

fluid-bed

UK, 200 t/d Canada

Wellman, UK

6t/d

Stationary

fluid-bed

Awaiting operation permit

ENSYN, Canada RTP™ ENEL, Italy

2*45 t/d

Circulating

fluid-bed

Circulating

fluid-bed

40 t/d plant operating since 1996

VTT, Finland

0.5 t/d

Circulating

fluid-bed

BTG, Netherlands

4 t/d

Rotating

cone

In planning 10 t/d

Forschungszen - trum Karlsruhe, Germany

Double

screw

Lurgi LR process

Pyrovac, Canada

35 t/d

Vacuum

pyrolysis

Fortum/V apo, Forestera™

12 t/d

Vacuum

Start-up May 2002

Finland

pyrolysis

(Gust, Nieminen, Nyronrn 2002)

diesel engines (e. g., Omrod) are underway, and tests are also being conducted on gas turbines. The amount of bio-oil currently available is small, however, which limits the opportunities for such testing.

Proposals for testing the gasification characteristics of bio-oil have also been made (Henrich, Dinjus, and Meier 2002). Initial pilot testing has already been completed.

The European Union has a program to develop standards for bio-oil, considering end-user requirements. A guide to analysis and characterization methods specific­ally adapted to bio-oil products has been published (Oasmaa and Peacocke 2002).

Gasification

Liquid Wastes

Organic Chemical Waste. Organic wastes from chemical production vary as widely as the processes from which they originate. One published example is the feedstock to a waste gasification plant at …

Carbon Management

In the Texaco process, soot is extracted from the carbon-water mixture with naphtha and recycled with the feedstock to the reactor where it is gasified to extinction. The black water …

Common Issues

Operating Temperature Any fluid bed depends on having the solid particles of a size that can be lifted by the upward flowing gas. A large portion (over 95%) of the …

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