Properties of Biomass

The properties of biomass are as diverse as the sources from which they come. Typ­ical data for some vegetable biomasses is included in Table 4-12.

Vegetable Biomass

Typical proximate and ultimate analyses are given in Table 4-13. Quaak, Knoef, and Stassen (1999) give a range for the bulk density of 150-200kg/m3 for straw shavings and 600-900 kg/m3 for solid wood.

Ash Properties. The major difference between biomass and coal ashes is that for the majority of most biomasses the ash consists mainly of salts. Most of the biomass ash consists of potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and, further, sodium, magnesium, iron, silicon, and trace elements. Some examples are given in Table 4-14.

As a result biomass ashes have low ash-melting points of, for example, 800°C for some straws. Because these ashes are extremely aggressive towards refractory mater­ials—K2C03 can be used to dissolve minerals before further analysis—biomass does not lend itself for slagging gasification unless it is mixed with large quantities of coal.


Liquid Wastes

Organic Chemical Waste. Organic wastes from chemical production vary as widely as the processes from which they originate. One published example is the feedstock to a waste gasification plant at …

Carbon Management

In the Texaco process, soot is extracted from the carbon-water mixture with naphtha and recycled with the feedstock to the reactor where it is gasified to extinction. The black water …

Common Issues

Operating Temperature Any fluid bed depends on having the solid particles of a size that can be lifted by the upward flowing gas. A large portion (over 95%) of the …

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