Gasification

Animal Biomass

Although biomass is often interpreted as vegetable biomass, animal-derived biomass remains an energy source that should not be totally ignored, even if its production is largely determined by developments in the agricultural and food sector. In order to provide an idea of the volumes involved, it should be noted that the annual production of waste by poultry is 8 kg/head. Pigs produce about 300 kg/y, beef cattle 900-1200 kg/y, and dairy cattle 1200-2000 kg/y (Smil 2001).

Table 4-12

Properties of Various Biomasses

Biomass

HHV

MJ/kg

Moisture

wt%

Ash

wt%

Sulfur wt% dry

Chlorine wt% dry

Charcoal

25-32

1-10

0.5-6

Wood

10-20

10-60

0.25-1.7

0.01

0.01

Coconut shell

18-19

8-10

1-4

Straw

14-16

10

4-5

0.07

0.49

Ground nut shells

17

2-3

10

Coffee husks

i6

10

0.6

Cotton residues

(stalks)

16

10-20

0.1

Cocoa husks

13-16

7-9

7-14

Palm oil residues

(shells)

15

15

Rice husk

13-14

9-15

15-20

Soya straw

15-16

8-9

5-6

Cotton residue

(gin trash)

14

9

12

Maize (stalk)

13-15

10-20

2 (3-7)

0.05

1.48

Palm oil residues

(fibers)

11

40

Sawdust

11.3

35

2

Bagasse

8-10

40-60

1-4

Palm oil residues

(fruit stems)

5

63

5

Source: Derived from Arbon 2002; Quaak, Knoef and Stas sen 1999

In the SCGP coal gasifier in the Nuon plant in Buggenum in The Netherlands, trials have been carried out with the gasification of mixtures of coal with up to 12% poultry litter and/or municipal sewage sludge. There are plans to gasify up to 30% non-coal feedstocks in 2004 (Kanaar and Wolters 2002). It should be mentioned that the percentages of alternative feedstocks are generally given as a mass percentage. As an energy percentage, these figures are at least 50% lower.

Abattoir waste has also been со-gasified in the Puertollano plant up to an amount of 4.5% of total feed. The meat and bone meal that is classified as a risk material was divided into specific risk material (SRM), consisting of spinal marrow, bones, intestines, spleen, or brain, and high risk material (HRM), which is other parts of the animals, and blood material. When this material was fed as 4.5% of the total feed, the high chlorine content made itself noticeable in an increased chloride level in the

Table 4-13

Analysis of Typical Biomass

Proximate Analysis

Volatile matter, wt% maf

>70

Ash, wt% ar

1.5

Moisture, wt% ar

20

Fixed carbon, wt% ar

Ultimate analysis

C, wt%

54.7

H, wt%

6.0

O, wt%

38.9

N, wt%

0.3

S, v

0.1

Table 4-14

Ash Components in Various Biomasses as Wt% of Total Ash

Straw

Miscanthus

Wood

CaO

6.5

7.5

37.3

MgO

3.0

2.5

8.5

Na20

1.3

0.2

3.0

k2o

23.7

12.8

8.6

Source: Klensch 2001

syngas scrubber (Schellberg and Pena 2002). Some typical properties of animal biomass are given in Table 4-15.

Gasification

Liquid Wastes

Organic Chemical Waste. Organic wastes from chemical production vary as widely as the processes from which they originate. One published example is the feedstock to a waste gasification plant at …

Carbon Management

In the Texaco process, soot is extracted from the carbon-water mixture with naphtha and recycled with the feedstock to the reactor where it is gasified to extinction. The black water …

Common Issues

Operating Temperature Any fluid bed depends on having the solid particles of a size that can be lifted by the upward flowing gas. A large portion (over 95%) of the …

Как с нами связаться:

Украина:
г.Александрия
тел./факс +38 05235  77193 Бухгалтерия
+38 050 512 11 94 — гл. инженер-менеджер (продажи всего оборудования)

+38 050 457 13 30 — Рашид - продажи новинок
e-mail: msd@msd.com.ua
Схема проезда к производственному офису:
Схема проезда к МСД

Контакты для заказов шлакоблочного оборудования:

+38 096 992 9559 Инна (вайбер, вацап, телеграм)
Эл. почта: inna@msd.com.ua