Liquid Wastes

Organic Chemical Waste. Organic wastes from chemical production vary as widely as the processes from which they originate. One published example is the feedstock to a waste gasification plant at …

Carbon Management

In the Texaco process, soot is extracted from the carbon-water mixture with naphtha and recycled with the feedstock to the reactor where it is gasified to extinction. The black water …

Common Issues

Operating Temperature Any fluid bed depends on having the solid particles of a size that can be lifted by the upward flowing gas. A large portion (over 95%) of the …

Other Gaseous Feedstocks

Refinery Gas. Refinery gas has been used as a feedstock for partial oxidation. Although partial oxidation cannot usually compete with steam reforming for hydrogen production from natural gas, the situation …

Coal-Water Sluny-Fed Gasifiers

The big advantage of coal-water slurry feed gasifiers is the more elegant method of pressurizing the coal. Lock hoppers as used in dry-coal feed gasifiers are costly and bulky equipment …

Gasification Processes

In the practical realization of gasification processes a broad range of reactor types has been and continues to be used. For most purposes these reactor types can be grouped into …

Hie Shell Gasification Process (SGP)

The Shell gasification process (SGP) was developed in Shell’s research center in Amsterdam during the early 1950s primarily as a means of manufacturing synthesis gas from fuel oil. The first …

Feed Quality

Historically fluid-bed gasifiers have tended to be operated on low-rank coals such as lignite, peat, or biomass, though not exclusively. This is logical, since low-rank coals have a higher reactivity, …

BIOMASS

The term biomass covers a broad range of materials that offer themselves as fuels or raw materials and that have in common that they are all derived from recently living …

Hie Koppers-Totzek Atmospheric Process

Just as with moving-bed and fluid-bed processes, the first entrained-flow slagging gasification process operated at atmospheric pressure. The atmospheric pressure Koppers-Totzek (KT) process was developed in the 1950s, and commercial …

MOVING-BED PROCESSES

Historically, moving-bed processes are the oldest processes, and two in particular, the producer gas process and the water gas process, played an important role in the early production of synthesis …

Waste Heat Recovery

The product of the partial oxidation reaction is a raw synthesis gas at a temperature of about 1300°C that contains particles of residual carbon and ash. The recovery of the …

Carbon Conversion

The intensive mixing in a fluid bed has its advantages in promoting excellent mass and heat transfer. In fact, a fluid bed approaches the ideal of a continuously stirred tank …

Properties of Biomass

The properties of biomass are as diverse as the sources from which they come. Typ­ical data for some vegetable biomasses is included in Table 4-12. Vegetable Biomass Typical proximate and …

Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) and Prenflo Process

The origin of both these processes goes back to the Koppers-Totzek process. Shell and Koppers jointly developed a pressurized version of the process, and in 1978 they started to operate …

The Lurgi Dry Ash Process

The patent for the Lurgi dry ash process, or “coal pressure gasification” as it was originally known (“Vergasung von Braunkohle unter Druck mit Sauerstoff-Wasser - dampf-Gemischen,” or “Gasification of browncoal …

New Developments

Despite various improvements over the years, it is generally recognized that hand­ling of the soot produced by partial oxidation of heavy residues places a consider­able financial burden on the overall …

Hie Winkler Process

The Winkler atmospheric fluid-bed process was the first modern continuous gasifi­cation process using oxygen rather than air as blast. The process was patented in 1922 and the first plant built …

Animal Biomass

Although biomass is often interpreted as vegetable biomass, animal-derived biomass remains an energy source that should not be totally ignored, even if its production is largely determined by developments in …

The Noell Process

The Noell process was first developed by Deutsches Brennstoffinstitut Freiberg in 1975 for the gasification of the local browncoal and other solid fuels. It became known under the name GSP. …

Process Description

The heart of the Lurgi process is in the reactor, in which the blast and syngas flow upwards in counter-current to the coal feedstock (Figure 5-1). Coal is loaded from …

Process Safety Process Automation

Partial oxidation is a process that requires careful control and monitoring so as to ensure that accidental temperature runaways are avoided, especially during transient conditions such as start-up and shutdown. …

Hie High-Temperature Winkler (HTW) Process

The name “high-temperature Winkler” for the process developed by Rheinbraun primarily for lignite gasification is to some extent a misnomer. The most important development vis-a-vis the original Winkler process is …

Black Liquor

Black liquor is an integral part of the papermaking process and represents about half the mass of the wood entering the pulping plant. It is the principal source of energy …

The Texaco Process

The Texaco gasification process was developed in the late 1940s. Although the main focus at that time was on utilization of natural gas reserves, some work on coal gasification was …

Gas Liquor Treatment

The gas liquor from the quench cooler typically contains the elements outlined in Table 5-3 (Supp 1990). There are a number of alternate strategies for handling this material. Lurgi has …

BIOMASS GASIFICATION

When looking at biomass conversion it is instructive to look at coal conversion, as there are many similarities. This is not so surprising since biomass is nothing but young coal. …

Circulating Fluid-Bed (CFB) Processes

The characteristics of a circulating fluid bed combine many advantages of the stationary fluid bed and the transport reactor. The high-slip velocities ensure good mix­ing of gas and solids, and …

Biomass Production

Cropping One of the most important limitations of biomass as a widespread fuel is the space required to grow it. Bridgwater (2002) estimates that “a sustainable crop of 10 dry …

The E-Gas Process

The E-Gas process utilizes a two-stage gasifier with a coal-slurry feed and is cur­rently the only two-stage process with an operating commercial-scale demonstration plant. The E-Gas process was developed by …

Equipment Issues

Both the Lurgi gasifier and the BGL gasifier described in Section 5.1.2 have moving parts that are absent in other gasifiers. For caking coals and sometimes for distribu­tion reasons, a …

Fluid-Bed Processes

Lurgi Circulating Fluid-Bed Process The Lurgi CFB process is described in Section 5.2. Plants operating on biomass and or waste include those in Riidersdorf in Germany (500 t/d waste) and …

The KBR Transport Gasifier

Fluid-bed gasification is also being developed in the high-velocity regime. Such a gasifier is the Kellogg Brown and Root (KBR) transport gasifier, for which a gas velocity in the riser …

Development Potential Bio-Oil

The major drawback of biomass is that the energy density is an order of magnitude lower than that of crude oil (Table 4-17). When it is further considered that biomass …

The CCP Gasifier

Recently, a consortium of Japanese utilities led by Toyo Electric and The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) formed the Clean Coal Power R&D Company (CCP), which announced …

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