EuroSun2008-5

Results — Performance Matrix

The result of the comparison of the failure detection methods against the criteria described in §2.4 is presented in table 4.1. The performance matrix shows the performance of the failure detection method based on the different criteria. A few things need to be clarified before interpreting the table. First of all, it is assumed that without automatic failure detection there is a possibility for checking data with a manual analysis. This can be effective but is costly (dependent on the level of the analysis). This could be (and is partially) applied for all methods. Therefore, the criterion is limited to automatic failure detection. Because a lot of information is qualitative, it is hard to determine how much a method will cost in future application when it is still in the R&D phase. Also the effectiveness of a method may increase based on practical experience. Furthermore, the (literature) publications in general do not provide a very accurate description of effectiveness and accuracy of the method.

Table 4.1 Performance matrix

Criteria

MM

FUKS

SP

IOC

ANN

GRS

KU

Automatic failure detection included?

--

++

++

++

++

--

++

Automatic failure identification included?

--

+

--

+-

--

--

+

Accuracy of failure detection

++

+-

?

+

?

+-

+

Accuracy of failure identification

++

+-

n. a.

+-

n. a.

n. a.

+-

Costs

(operational/hardware)

var

++ 100 €

+?

+

1190 €'

+?

10 k€2

+-

20-80€3

Monitored part of solar heating system (so far)4

var

sl

sl

sl, bs

sl

-aux

-aux

Qualitative scale: ++ yes/very good/c

leap via +- = reasona

ble to -- no/very bad/expensive

? = unclear

1 IOC: only hardware

2 costs for measurement equipment, including one year monitoring

3 Costs per month for 20 year monitoring and at least 30 monitoring systems sold. The main costs are

expected for maintenance and improvement of software (between € 15 and 50 per month) [11].

4 var = variable, sl = solar loop, - aux = whole system besides auxiliary heating system, bs = buffer

discharging loop (optional for IOC)

The IOC is the first method which could result into the implementation of a monitoring and failure detection method into general use of larger solar thermal systems. It has been tested and is commercially available against a reasonable price, but it does not apply to the whole solar system. Manual monitoring, though more costly, is much easier adapted to extensive variation in hydraulics and systems. The method developed at Kassel University is still in development, but could also provide an automatic monitoring solution for large systems. It includes more sensors and a larger part of the system than the IOC approach, and can therefore also analyse individual components. For very small systems the approach followed in FUKS detects several failures at reasonable additional costs.

However, so far none of the above described approaches takes the auxiliary heating system into account, which is also an important source of errors.

EuroSun2008-5

Automatic Control System

The whole automation system is mainly divided into two parts: one part is the hardware equipments consisted of all kinds of devices used in the testing system; the other part …

The application of the regulations minimal solar collector area

Following the new regulations, a three bedrooms autonomous zone must have a minimal collector area of 4 m2 independently of the climate zone were is located. From the simulations results …

Measured sequences used for validation purposes

The comparison of experimental and calculated instantaneous power results, obtained after the different approaches presented in the previous section, is based on instantaneous efficiency measurements for a CPC collector (C …

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