EuroSun2008-5

Options of HVAC and DHW equipments

Since the energy label in Portugal is based on an evaluation of primary energy, equipments for ambient heating, ambient cooling and production of domestic hot water have, besides the envelope and the climate, a critical influence in the result. In order to analyse the influence of the equipments, several scenarios were considered, as listed in Table 4.

Table 2 : Main characteristics of case-studies (as in the base-cases)

Apartment T1

Dwelling

Floor area (m2)

53.5

150.4

External wall area (m2)

30.4

132.7

Shape factor

0.70

0.75

Main wall U-value (W/m2.°C)

0.57

0.68

Planar thermal bridge U-value (W/m2.°C)

1.12

0.86

Roof area

-

80.1

Main roof U-value (W/m2.°C)

-

0.42

Window area (m2)

12.2

28.6

Main window U-value (W/m2.°C)

3.1

2.9

Main window orientation

NE

NW and SW

Main window shading device

External roller blinds, except 1 glazed door with internal curtains.

External roller blinds

Nominal air change rate (infiltration)

0.94 ach'1

1.1 ach-1

Thermal inertia

high

high

Other characteristics

- Garage under the floor.

- Shading from nearby buildings

- 2 floors, incl/ garage

- No relevant obstructions

Table 3: Main characteristics of the selected climates

Climatic Zone

solar radiation [kWh/m2]

Location

Heating

Heating

Winter, on

Summer, on

Winter

Summer

degree-days

months

South surface

Horizontal surface

per month

June to September

Braganja

I3

V2 N

2850

8

90

790

Evora

I1

V3 S

1390

5.7

108

820

Faro

I1

V2 S

1060

4.3

108

820

Guarda

I3

V1 N

2956

8

90

730

Lisboa

I1

V2 S

1190

5.3

108

820

Penhas Douradas

I3

V1 N

3400

8

90

730

Viana do Castelo

I2

V1 N

1760

6.3

92

730

Table 4: Heating, cooling and DWH equipment scenarios considered

Scenario

Ambient heating

Ambient cooling

Domestic hot water

Eqpt. 1

Gas boiler

Heat pump

Gas boiler

Eqpt. 2

Gas boiler

Heat Pump

Solar collector + gas boiler

image153

1st International Congress on Heating, Cooling, and Buildings, 7th to 10th October, Lisbon - Portugal /

Eqpt. 3

Heat pump

Heat pump

Electrical resistance

Eqpt. 4

Heat pump

Heat pump

Gas boiler

Eqpt. 5

Heat pump

Heat pump

Solar collector + electrical resistance

Eqpt. 6

Heat pump

Heat pump

Solar collector + gas boiler

EuroSun2008-5

Automatic Control System

The whole automation system is mainly divided into two parts: one part is the hardware equipments consisted of all kinds of devices used in the testing system; the other part …

The application of the regulations minimal solar collector area

Following the new regulations, a three bedrooms autonomous zone must have a minimal collector area of 4 m2 independently of the climate zone were is located. From the simulations results …

Measured sequences used for validation purposes

The comparison of experimental and calculated instantaneous power results, obtained after the different approaches presented in the previous section, is based on instantaneous efficiency measurements for a CPC collector (C …

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