Limits of the System Performance

The fixed position of the mirror arrays in the heliostat field is a limiting factor for the optical perform­ance. Each single mirror has the same characteristics as a classical heliostat. Because of the close spac­ing, the main problem of the MMA is shading.

Подпись: nref ,i image099 image100

To evaluate the characteristics of a MMA and compare its performance to that of a conventional (ref­erence) heliostat of the same size, its performance was evaluated in a raytracing model. The instanta­neous reflection efficiency and the annual reflection efficiency are defined as

DNIi and DNIa stand for the instantaneous and annual direct normal insolation respectively. “Pre - flected” and “Ereflected” are respectively the power and energy reflected by the heliostat towards the receiver. Ah is the frontal area of the MMA heliostat box and the mirror area of the conventional helio - stat.


Validation of the library components

The validation of the models is necessary to ensure that the calculated results are valid. Furthermore it is to proof what differences consist due to the assumptions made in the …

Solar industrial process heat plants in operation

Data gathered in the framework of the IEA Task 33/IV include comprehensive information about the geographical distribution of the solar thermal plants, the industrial sectors addressed, the specific processes, the …

Experimental Investigations On Solar Driven Desalination Systems Using Membrane Distillation

J. Koschikowski*, M. Wieghaus*, M. Rommel*, Vicente Subiela Ortin**, Baltasar Penate Suarez**, Juana Rosa Betancort Rodriguez** * Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISEHeidenhofstr.2,79110 Freiburg, GermanyTel +49-761-4588-5294Fax +49-761-4588-9000email ioako@ise. fhg. …

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