Эффективность энергетики

THE FOREWORD

The opportunity to increase the efficiency of traditional power engineering in many respects is limited to the laws of physics, including thermodynamics. One can try to improve a thermodynamic cycle, energy installation or it’s elements, fuel combustion processes, production technology, but the outcome of it will be extremely low: 1...5 %, because now we already have used all the technical and physical reserves. Therefore it is necessary to search for new opportunities in latest achievements of physics, and there are such.

In the second half of 90th, on the eve of ХХIst century the new physics is being developed, which considers circulation and transformation of energy and substance, the uniform mechanism energy generation – phase transition of super sort (PhTSS) is established. PhTSS is the destruction of substance to elementary particles, which kinetic energy turns in thermal energy and other kinds of energy (mechanical and electrical...).

These reactions, being nuclear in fact – can proceed at different intensity up to complete disintegration of substance. There is no substance, which could not be split. But we are interested in the substances widespread and restored by nature – air and water, with the complete disintegration being not necessary because of radio-activity, accompaning it. This power, mentioned, is call natural.

The basis of the mechanism of PhTSS for energy generation is established by electrodynamic interaction of free electrons with substance atoms, when the negatively charged electron pulls much finer positively charged particles out from atom, like electrino, for example. High speed electrino gives out the kinetic energy from a distance (electrodynamically) or directly (at direct collisions) to the surrounding atoms and particles, turning into photons ("powerless" electrino) through that and leaving to space from a zone of reaction. As we can see from such brief description of PhTSS mechanism, two conditions are necessary for its course: first one – plasma, as a condition of the ionized substance shattered, at least, at atoms; second one – the existence of free electrons.

Strangely enough, such kind of reaction takes place on when burning organic fuel in ovens and chambers of combustion in traditional energy installations. Thus, some measure of intensity is the ratio of quantity of free electrons to donor atom of fine particles, which is the oxygen at burning.

So, for one atom of oxygen (16 nuclear units of mass) in reaction of burning one free electron is necessary. The complete disintegration of oxygen atom would require 16 free electrons simultaneously, but the point is where to get them. Then, the intensity of burning to complete disintegration to the specified attribute makes very insignificant number – 1/16. However adding every electron participating simultaneously is accompanied by 10n increase of energy generation.

It is necessary to pay the special attention to the fact that at burning there is no radio-activity present. So we are interested in reactions with small intensity, with an output of energy comparable with burning or more than that, and also based on use of new fuel like air and water.

To make it clear it is necessary to number the other known power processes occurring by this specific mechanism. For example, it is the generation of light in an electrical bulb, when the electrons in the strings cooperate with atoms of wolfram in the way we described. Also it’s the generation of an electrical current in accumulators, for example, leaden ones, in which on a leaden plate at formation oxide of hydrogen its decomposition to ions of hydrogen, oxygen and three electrons (on for each molecule) that is plasma in electrolyte occurs. Free electrons immediately begin the work on partial splitting of the ions mentioned and on the formation of an electrical current.

In nuclear reactors of power plants PhTSS occurs under the same common laws. However complete disintegration of substance, uranium-235 for example, is accompanied by radiation completely unnecessary and dangerous to all alive.

For past five years the examples of energy installations work with PhTSS that are more intensive than usual burning have appeared, but – it is not the complete disintegration, and it is mainly based on partial splitting of air and water. So in internal combustion engines (ICE) the mode of operations was achieved, at which the charge of fuel (petrol) decreases up to 5...6 times, and capacity grows accordingly. In structure of exhaust gases in ICE the higher contents of water pair, carbon in a form of fine graphite, oxygen, and lowered contents of nitrogen and carbonic gas is revealed.

The positive results for different ICE are achieved, but they are not stable yet.

Another example is cavitation heat generators of different types, including ones protected by the Russian patents. Where at excitation of cavitation the plasma of high parameters in microzones is formed and PhTSS occurs with the generation of superfluous thermal energy. Factors of transformation of energy are low so far: out of one unit of the electrical energy spent we receive two – three units of a thermal energy. However, there is an opportunity to increase an output of superfluous energy a few 10n more.

In the information sources, for example, in one of the patents, radiation tool measurements are given during the operation of cavitation installations, namely: б, в, г and neutron radiation. So, for usual water the radioactive radiation is at a level of the background, that is, it cannot be found. However, to prove that the reaction was the nuclear one, the author inputed into water various salts, which became radioactive, and then radiation was measured by devices.

The universal mechanics, established by physics, of energy generation from substance still is not really investigated and used. Due to the theory and given practical examples in ХХI century energy generation is possible thanks to partial splitting of new kinds of fuel, which are the natural substances – air and water, the ones, renewed by the nature. And the insignificant intensity of reaction at sufficient liberation of energy will meet the needs of the people, and without infringement of ecological conditions.

As all theories do not completely reflect all parties of the phenomena and processes, the authors hope to get the constructive understanding of the phenomenon, given in the monography, which from our point of view should work to solver the problems of energy, and also to achieve the comprehension of knowledge on the basis of the new approach to the profound understanding of the microworld and its laws.

Saint Petersburg

March 22, 2000

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