development of new energy

HISTORICAL TRENDS IN TECHNOLOGICAL AND OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE

1.1

HISTORICAL TRENDS IN TECHNOLOGICAL AND OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE Подпись: As shown in Eq. (3), engine, aerodynamic, and structural efficiencies play an important role in determining the energy intensity of an aircraft. Engine efficiency in large commercial aircraft, as measured by the cruise SFC of newly introduced engines, improved by approximately 40% over the period 1959-1995, averaging an annual 1.5% improvement. Most of this improvement was realized prior to 1970, with the introduction of high-bypass turbofan engines. However, as bypass ratios have increased, engine diameters have also become larger, leading to an increase in engine weight and aerodynamic drag. Other routes to engine efficiency improvement include increasing the peak pressure and temperature within the engine, which is limited by materials and cooling technology, and improving engine component efficiencies. Aerodynamic efficiency in large commercial aircraft has increased by approximately 15% historically, averaging 0.4%/year for the same period. Better wing design and improved propulsion/air- frame integration, enabled by improved computational and experimental design tools, have been the primary drivers. Historical improvements in structural efficiency are less evident. One reason is that over the 35-year period between the introduction of the B707 and the B777, large commercial aircraft have been constructed almost exclusively of aluminum and are currently about 90% metallic by weight. Composites are used for a limited number of components. Another reason is that improvements in aircraft structural efficiency have been

Technological Performance

largely traded for other technological improvements, such as larger, heavier engines and increased passenger comfort.

development of new energy

Discussion

Aggregation using price has its shortcomings. Prices provide a reasonable method of aggregation if the aggregate cost function is homothetically separable in the raw material input prices. This means that …

PREFACE

The history of human culture can be viewed as the progressive development of new energy sources and their associated conversion technologies. Advances in our understanding of energy have produced unparalleled …

ECONOMIC GROWTH, DEMAND, AND ENERGY USE

On a per capita basis, rising demand for mobility is well correlated with growth in gross domestic product (GDP)—a measure of national economic activity—across a wide variety of economic, social, …

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