Шрифт, верстка, дизайн

Длина строки или формат колонки

Обычно шрифт набирается колонками, ширина колонки называется форматом колонки. И хотя су­ществует искушение использовать термин длина строки (line length) взамен формата колонки2 (measure), но они не всегда обозначают одно и то же. Например, когда выполняется флаговый набор с рваным правым краем (ragged right margin), т. е. строки не полностью заполняют ширину ко­лонки, длина каждой отдельной строки не равняет­ся ширине колонки, частью которой является3 (рис. 9.1). Если в таком тексте отсутствуют переносы

РИС. 9.1. Вертикальными ли­ниями отмечены границы тек­стового блока, они фиксиру­ют формат колонки. Это именно тот случай, когда дли­на строки и формат колонки не совпадают

About twenty years ago, there lived a singular gentleman in the Old Hall among the elm-trees. He was about three-score years of age, very rich, and somewhat odd in many of his habits, but for generosity and benevolence he [had no equal.

РИС. 9.2A (стр. 171). Для некоторых шрифтов сплош­ной набор в узких колонках (11У2 пики) очень удачен, но крупные пропорции гарниту­ры Sabon, использованной на рисунке, при наборе кеглем 10 по схеме 10/10 выглядят слег­ка сжатыми. Впечатление улучшится, если увеличить интерлиньяж на один пункт (10/11), а схема 10/12 уже начи­нает разбивать набор на поло­сы. То же справедливо для набора шрифтом кегля 11. Для данной колонки шрифт кегля 11 кажется великоват, создавая строки всего в не­сколько слов и очень рваный край. Шрифт, набранный кег­лем 12, заметно велик, хотя если ему правильно назначить интерлиньяж, то он может отлично сыграть в качестве акцидентного текста (что бывает нередко), то большинство строк окажет­ся короче полной ширины колонки, так как програм­ма не может удлинить строку за счет частей слов, разделенных переносом.

Компьютерные издательские программы по-пре- жнему не имеют разумного подхода к идее форма­та колонки. В некоторых программах сначала опре­деляется формат страницы, затем размер полей, количество текстовых колонок на странице и, нако­нец, расстояние между этими колонками4. И вы вы­нуждены определять ширину колонок методом вы­читания. В таких программах вы не можете сказать: «Я хочу три колонки шириной 14 пик с пробелом между ними в 1 пику», хотя в таком желании есть определенная логика. Ширина колонки не должна быть производной величиной, ее нужно задавать явным образом. Что касается размеров полей, то их, если необходимо, можно рассчитать самостоятель­но, до того, как вводить числа с клавиатуры, скла­дывая ширины колонок и пробелов между ними и вычитая сумму из ширины страницы. (Определение этих параметров требуется для построения модуль­ной сетки страницы, которая обсуждается в гл. 12.)

It has been urged as an argu­ment in favor of rechartering the present bank that the call­ing in its loans will produce great embarrassment and dis­tress. The time allowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it shall pro­duce distress, the fault will be its own, and it would furnish a reason against renewing a power wnich has been so obvi-

10/10x12 пик

It has been urged as an argu­ment in favor of rechartering the present bank that the calling in its loans will pro­duce great embarrassment and distress. The time al­lowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce distress, the fault will be its own, and it would furnish a reason against re -

11/11 x 12 пик

It has been urged as an ar­gument in favor of rechar­tering the present bank that the calling in its loans will produce great embar­rassment and distress. The time allowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be fight, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce distress, the fault will be its own, and it

12/12x12 пик

It has been urged as an argu­ment in favor of rechartering the present bank that the call­ing in its loans will produce great embarrassment and dis­tress. The time allowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it shall pro­duce distress, the fault will be its own, and it would furnish a reason against renewing a 10/11 x 12 пик

It has been urged as an argu­ment in favor of rechartering the present bank that the calling in its loans will pro­duce great embarrassment and distress. The time al­lowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce distress, the fault will be its own, and it would 11/12 x 12 пик

It has been urged as an ar­gument in favor of rechar­tering the present bank that the calling in its loans will produce great embar­rassment and distress. The time allowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce distress, the fault 12/13x12 пик

It has been urged as an argu­ment in favor of rechartering the present bank that the call­ing in its loans will produce great embarrassment and dis­tress. The time allowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it shall pro­duce distress, the fault will be its own, and it would furnish a 10/12x12 пик

It has been urged as an argu­ment in favor of rechartering the present bank that the calling in its loans will pro­duce great embarrassment and distress. The time al­lowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce distress, the fault 11/13x12 пик

It has been urged as an ar­gument in favor of rechar­tering the present bank that the calling in its loans will produce great embar­rassment and distress. The time allowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it shall 12/14x12 пик

It has been urged as an argument in favor of re- chartering the present bank that the calling in its loans will produce great embarassment and dis­tress. The time allowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce dis­tress, the fault will be its own, and it would fur­nish a reason against renewing a power which has been so obviously abused. But will there ever be a time when this reason will be less powerful? To acknowledge its force is to admit that the bank ought to be perpetual, and as a consequence the present stockholders and those inheriting

10/11 x 18 пик

It has been urged as an argument in favor of rechartering the present bank that the calling in its loans will produce great embarassment and distress. The time allowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, there­fore, it shall produce distress, the fault will be its own, and it would furnish a reason against renewing a power which has been so obviously abused. But will there ever be a time when this reason will be less powerful? To acknowledge its force is to admit that the bank ought to be perpetual, and as a conse -

11/12 x 18 пик

It has been urged as an argument in favor of rechartering the present bank that the calling in its loans will produce great embarassment and distress. The time al­lowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its manage­ment has been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce distress, the fault will be its own, and it would furnish a reason against re­newing a power which has been so obvi­ously abused. But will there ever be a time when this reason will be less power­ful? To acknowledge its force is to admit 12/13x18 пик

It has been urged as an argument in favor of re­chartering the present bank that the calling in its loans will produce great embarassment and dis­tress. The time allowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce dis­tress, the fault will be its own, and it would fur­nish a reason against renewing a power which has been so obviously abused. But will there ever be a time when this reason will be less powerful? To acknowledge its force is to admit that the bank ought to be perpetual, and as a consequence 10/12 x 18 пик

It has been urged as an argument in favor of rechartering the present bank that the calling in its loans will produce great embarassment and distress. The time allowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, there­fore, it shall produce distress, the fault will be its own, and it would furnish a reason against renewing a power which has been so obviously abused. But will there ever be a time when this reason will be less powerful? To acknowledge its force is to admit that the 11/13 x 18 пик

It has been urged as an argument in favor of rechartering the present bank that the calling in its loans will produce great embarassment and distress. The time al­lowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its manage­ment has been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce distress, the fault will be its own, and it would furnish a reason against re­newing a power which has been so obvi­ously abused. But will there ever be a time when this reason will be less power - 12/14x18 пик

It has been urged as an argument in favor of rechartering the present bank that the calling in its loans will produce great embar­rassment and distress. The time allowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce distress, the fault will be its own, and it would fur­nish a reason against renewing a power which has been so obvi-

10/11 x 24 пики

It has been urged as an argument in favor of rechartering the present bank that the calling in its loans will produce great embar­rassment and distress. The time allowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce distress, the fault will be its own, and it would fur­nish a reason against renewing a power which has been so obvi-

10/12x24 пики

It has been urged as an argument in favor of rechartering the present bank that the calling in its loans will produce great embarrassment and distress. The time allowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce distress, the fault will be its own, and it would furnish a reason against renew­ing a power which has been so obviously abused. But will

11/12x24 пики

It has been urged as an argument in favor of rechartering the present bank that the calling in its loans will produce great embarrassment and distress. The time allowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce distress, the fault will be its own, and it would furnish a reason against renew­ing a power which has been so obviously abused. But will 11/13x24 пики

It has been urged as an argument in favor of rechartering the present bank that the calling in its loans will produce great embarrassment and distress. The time allowed to close its concerns is ample, and if it has well managed its pressure will be light, and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, therefore, it shall produce distress, the fault will be its own, and it would furnish a reason against renew - 11/14x24 пики

РИС. 9.2Б (стр. 172). Когда фор­мат колонки превышает 18 пик, на­бор по схеме 10/11 таков, что он только выиграет от одного допол­нительного пункта интерлиньяжа, что и демонстрирует пример со схе­мой 10/12. С небольшим количе­ством слов в строке набор по схе­ме 11/12 не выглядит однородно серым, а дополнительный пункт к интерлиньяжу (схема 11/13) усили­вает впечатление воздушности. С кеглем 12 и одним дополнитель­ным пунктом интерлиньяжа (схе­ма 12/13) набор начинает выгля­деть тяжеловато и как будто за­жатым в замкнутом пространстве. Несмотря на то, что формат ко­лонки опгносигельно узок, крупный кегль требует дополнительного пространства «для вздоха», которое обеспечивает схема набора YljW

РИС. 9.2В. Если формат колонки увеличивается, то интерлиньяж так­же не должен отставать. Горизон­тальная текстура у текста, набран­ного по схеме 10/11, не чувствуется при опгносигельно плотном интер­линьяже Дополнительный пункт интерлиньяжа в наборе по схеме 10/12 разительно меняет текст, он становится гораздо привлекатель­нее. И текст, набранный по схеме 11/12, также кажется интенсивно темным, в то время как пример к схеме 11/13 обладает большей от­крытостью и более сбалансирован. Набор по схеме 11/14 уже становит­ся чересчур разреженным, но по­скольку гарнитура Sabon относи­тельно массивна, то отбивка не ве­дет к отделению строк друг от друга. У более светлых гарнитур или шрифта с меньшим ростом строчных букв это может привес­ти к чрезмерной разреженности

В других программах вы можете очертить текстовые рамки (text frame), кото­рые служат границами полосы набора5. Создав такие рамки, вы тем самым опреде­ляете их истинные ширины, то есть формат колонки, но при этом приходится вруч­ную создавать пробелы между колонками с помощью точного позиционирования рамок на странице. Это тоже достаточно примитивно.

В программах верстки определение параметров страниц создает некоторое по­добие модульной сетки (page grid). Например, в них можно определить обрезной формат страницы (trim size): размер страницы в готовой книге или журнале. Они также определяют формат колонки или колонок и размер полей, которые в случае простой книжной страницы как раз и определяют полосу набора (text area).

Короче говоря, исходя из фундаментальных типографических представлений, формат колонки следует определять прежде всего.

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